July 2, 2022

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The world's largest bacteria the size of a human eyelash has been discovered

The world’s largest bacteria the size of a human eyelash has been discovered

Newly discovered bacterium is large enough to be visible to the naked eye, and resembles the shape And the size of an eyelash, it was found in Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles, according to a study published Thursday in Science Magazine.

Thiomargarita magnifica – in reference to its exceptional size – has an average cell length of over 9,000 μm, roughly 1 cm (0.4 in) in length. The cells of most bacteria are about 2 µm in length, although larger cells can be up to 750 µm.

T. magnifica can be up to 2 centimeters long, according to study co-author Jean-Marie Foland, a marine biologist and scientist at the California Laboratory for Complex Systems Research, and a member of the US Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute.

“To understand how big this is for bacteria, it’s as if we found a human the length of Mount Everest,” he told CNN on Wednesday.

More than 625,000 E. coli bacteria can fit on the surface of a single T. magnifica. However, despite the bacteria’s size, their surface is “remarkably pure,” free of surface-dwelling bacteria on living plants and animals, according to the study.

How do you maintain its size?

It was previously believed that bacteria cannot grow to the size visible to the naked eye due to how they interact with their environment and produce energy.

But T. magnifica has an extended network of membranes that can produce energy so that it doesn’t just depend on the surface of bacteria To absorb nutrients through its cell. Volland was able to visualize and observe giant cells in 3D with the help of solid-state X-ray tomography, confocal laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, according to new version.

Unlike most bacteria, which contain genetic material freely floating within their single cell, the T. magnifica cell contains its own DNA contained in small membrane-bound sacs called pepins.

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“This was a very interesting discovery that opens a lot of new questions because it is not something that is classically observed in bacteria. It is actually a feature of more complex cells, the type of cells that make up our bodies or our animals and plants,” said Foland. “We want to understand what those epitopes are and what exactly they do, and whether they play a role in the development of gigantism for these bacteria, for example.”

T. magnifica was discovered in Guadeloupe.

T. magnifica was first discovered growing as thin white threads on the surfaces of decomposing mangrove leaves in shallow tropical marine mangrove swamps in Guadeloupe, according to the study.

These giant bacteria grow on sediments at the bottom of sulfur waters, where they harness the chemical energy of sulfur and use oxygen from the surrounding water to produce sugars, according to Voland. T. magnifica can also make food from carbon dioxide.

It has been suggested that by being much larger than the average bacteria, a T. magnifica cell could be better at accessing both oxygen and sulfur in its environment at the same time, according to Volland.

It’s also possible that the size of T. magnifica cells compared to other microbes in the bacterial assemblage means they don’t have to worry about being eaten by predators.

Shown is an underwater view of one of the Guadeloupe sites sampled by researchers from April to May 2022.

Microbial black box

Tania Woicki, chief scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California, thinks giant bacteria, or related species, are likely to be found in other mangroves around the world.

“It always amazes me how little we know about the microbial world and how much is out there,” she told CNN Wednesday, adding that the microbial world is “still a black box.” Wiki, who leads the US Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute’s Microbial Genomics Program, is one of the study’s senior authors.

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The study concluded that “confirmation bias related to virus size has prevented the discovery of giant viruses for more than a century.” “The discovery of Ca. T. magnifica suggests that large, complex bacteria may be hiding in plain sight.”

“Just because we haven’t seen it yet, doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist,” Wiki added.