June 28, 2022

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Peter the Great transformed Russia into a power in the 17th century – 06/11/2022 – World

The first emperor, Peter the Great, was born Russia, This Thursday (9) marks 350 years. His personality and achievements are still the subject of much attention and heated debate among historians.

After the death of his father, Tsar Alexeios of Russia (1629-1676), who was known for his mild reforms and severe persecution, Peter’s childhood was overshadowed by the bloody feud and intrigue between the influential Boer families Narishkin and Miloslovsky. Disobedience.

The young Jar academics, engaged in a turbulent political career, left Peter a broad independent movement: the young man became very focused. War games And navigation studies. He surrounded himself with loyal friends from different backgrounds and nationalities (among them, for example, the Dutch and Germans from the suburbs of Nemetskaya Sloboda near Moscow – today the Lofordovo district southeast of the Russian capital).

Pedro’s first independent decisions shocked his political opponents, who did not expect decisive and strong action “with a commitment to sports” from the young ruler.

The turning point in the worldview of young sovereignty was the so-called “Grand Embassy” (1697-1698), in which Peter traveled indirectly to many European countries. This task has failed to achieve its main political purpose – a series of coalition agreements to successfully end the war against Empire Ottoman– But for more than a year Pedro had the unique opportunity to study navigation, naval construction, fortifications, artillery and proper science.

Returning from his work abroad, Peter realized that Russia could only be created by gaining a reliable store at sea, creating a modern navy, military and civilian administration, and reforming the country’s trade and industry. Jar decided to resolve the matter with his full determination. Refusing to continue his military campaigns in the south, Peter turned his eyes to the Baltic coast and the growth of the Urals and Siberian wealth.

Saxony used military alliance with Elector August II (1670-1733), while the Polish monarch and the Grand Duke of Lithuania ended up at the “Grand Embassy”, where Tsar entered the war against Sweden. Dominated o Balti Sea From the middle of the 17th century.

However, after 21 years of conflict, Russia gained a new regional and administrative division, with prikazes (the old governing bodies from Ivan III) being replaced by more efficient colleges (similar to ministries), the judiciary and so on. Reformed and the army was rearranged to modern standards. A military navy was also formed, which was able to achieve a decisive victory against the Swedes.

Peter the Great imposed the “Patent Schedule”, which regulates civil, military and court rankings, giving government employees the rare opportunity to be rewarded for their achievements and skills rather than their upper-class appearance.

In 1721, the Great Northern War came to an end. Sweden signed the Nistat Agreement, which gave Russia access to land and the Baltic Sea. The peace treaty provided a general amnesty for all “criminals and fugitives”, with the exception of supporters of the traitor Ivan Maseba, who became head of the Saboroshi Cossacks, the Swedish king during the war.

After the conquest, Tsar Peter was crowned Emperor of All Russia, and Russia’s Charade was declared the Russian Empire, with a firm geopolitical position in Northern and Eastern Europe. City St. PetersburgFounded in 1703 by Peter the Great on the banks of the Neva River, it became the capital of the empire.

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Russia has steadily entered the family of major European powers. In a hundred years, Napoleon and Vienna will lead the country to a “concert of Europe” after a historic victory over the Congress.

The Emperor and the Tsar were a worker and creator. He introduced a new way of life, emphasizing Western clothing, including shaved beards and foreign words in Russian court, but with the forced modernization he sought to support and enhance domestic talents and preserve a distinctive identity. Pedro’s descendants followed his example: by following the best foreign practices, they defended their unique national identity and dedicated themselves to the service of the motherland.

In conclusion, I would like to note that Peter’s rule is often criticized in the works of Russian and foreign historians, because in their view, J ஜrg’s reforms were primarily aimed at meeting military needs, rather than promoting genuine modernization. Governance system.

While it is accepted that these observations are valid, the success of Peter’s reforms implemented during the difficult war cannot be denied. On the contrary, Russia’s critics and opponents should not forget this historical example, especially today, when Peter the Great opened very effectively, trying again to “close the window of Europe on Russia”.