June 29, 2022

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5 things we discovered from the beginning of the epidemic

It is two years since the newcomer arrived Corona virus Discovered after the eruption in China.

On December 31, 2019, the country announced the discovery of SARS-Cove-2, which causes COV-19 disease, and since then the world has changed at an astounding pace. The epidemic that followed changed from the way we work to the medical treatments we get.

Here are five things we learned from the beginning of the epidemic.

Before infection, vaccine development took at least 4 years

Image: REUTERS / Siphiwe Sibeko

1. MRNA vaccines work and can be produced quickly

Once the Govt-19 reached the epidemic stage, a race began among researchers to develop a vaccine that could protect the population.

Some pharmaceutical companies have decided to bet on a relatively new type of technology that is not yet used in the vaccine approved for human use – mRNA.

The bet paid off. Using mRNA, Pfizer / BioNTech (later Moderna) not only was able to develop the vaccine for Kovit-19 faster than any other company, but also opened the door to many new therapies using similar technology.

The process is carried out by taking a small part of the genetic code called mRNA and coating it with fat. This material can then be picked up by cells, which use it as a set of mechanisms to create new material.

In corona virus vaccines, MRNA instructs our cells to make a small fraction of the covirus virus. The body’s immune system learns to recognize the virus and is ready to attack you if it becomes infected.

But MRNA has the potential to be used in many other ways. Can be additionally used to develop new vaccines for such diseases HIV, Capture And Ziga, which is used to train the body’s immune system to attack cancer cells, to create missing proteins in the cells of people with cystic fibrosis, or to teach the body’s defense system to stop attacking the nervous system in people with multiple sclerosis. .

Research on MRNA therapies has been going on for decades, but for the first time the technology has been proven to be effective in Kovit-19 vaccines. This success will inspire research with the potential to transform the lives of millions of people.

Affected - Helio Bilho / Secom ES - Helio Filho / Secom ES

The epidemic hit the poor the hardest

Image: Helio Filho / Secom ES

2. Covit-19 spreads in the air much more easily than we first thought

About four months after the outbreak, the World Health Organization still does not advise people to wear masks. “We do not recommend wearing masks if you are not feeling well,” said Maria van Kerkov, technology head of the organization’s Govt-19 Fight.

But subsequent scientific evidence changed that view. Today, during most epidemics, the WHO says people should “wear a mask as a normal part of being around others.”

Researchers have found that the Covit-19 virus is not spread by large saliva or mucus in the air shortly after a cough or sneeze.

The virus can also be transmitted through aerosols – tiny particles that can stay in the air for long periods of time.

We now know that Covit-19 is mainly transmitted by air. The transmission of SARS-Cowie-2 after touching the surfaces is now considered relatively low.

“In March [de 2020], People asked me how much time I should spend cleaning groceries. Everyone was hyperactive and hyperbilirubinemic, “said Paula Cannon, professor of microbiology and molecular immunology at the University of Southern California School of Medicine.

“Since then, the virus that spreads through the air in poorly ventilated indoor spaces may be responsible for most of the spreads and cause bars and indoor environments to be very dangerous,” he explains.

The virus is released by those who do not have a mask when talking, singing or simply breathing and will be in the air if there is no ventilation in the room.

Hand washing and cleaning surfaces is still a good habit, but now more emphasis has been placed on mask wear and ventilation.

reunião - Chris Montgomery / Unsplash - Chris Montgomery / Unsplash

Working from home has become more common

Image: Chris Montgomery / Unsplash

3. Homework is right here

Millions of people around the world began to work from home instead of going to offices and other workplaces during epidemics.

The epidemic showed that this type of work does not reduce productivity and many companies dropped their opposition to adopting it.

Twitter announced in May 2020 that its employees could work full-time from home after the epidemic, until their share is allowed to do that work.

“Over the past few months we have proven we can do this job,” the company said.

The Facebook It made a similar announcement earlier this year, but it’s not just the tech giants that have changed.

According to a survey of 1,200 companies by Enterprise Technology Research, the percentage of permanent home-based workforce in the world is expected to double by 2021.

In a global survey of more than 200,000 people in 190 countries, Boston Consulting found that 89% of people expect to be able to work from home at least once a week after the outbreak. This is a significant increase from the pre-infection rate: only 31% of the population had this option.

But for many, often low-security and low-paying jobs, flexible job opportunities can be very limited. This can further increase inequalities in the community.

Mascara - Getty Images - Getty Images

Today we know that the virus is spread mainly through the air.

Image: Getty Images

4. The epidemic has hit people hardest in socially vulnerable situations

The Kovit-19 epidemic reminded us that a crisis would exacerbate the massive social inequality that already exists in the world.

In the United Kingdom, a study by UK Biobank researchers found that 11.4% of people in the poorest part of the country were affected by Govt’s disease, while those in the most privileged areas had the lowest rate (7.8%).

The team also found that ethnic minorities were affected proportionately, as happened in the United States.

In New York, 2020 data show that Hispanics and blacks accounted for 34% and 28% of Govt deaths, respectively, although they make up 29% and 22% of the population.

A survey conducted in California shows that non-Hispanic black patients are 2.7 times more likely to be admitted to the hospital than non-Hispanic white patients.

Many countries do not have accurate data on Govt exposure, but one of the largest fluctuations globally is in vaccine rates. In high- and middle-income countries, about 70% of the population is fully vaccinated, according to data from Our World. In low-income countries it drops to just 4%. Even in low-middle-income countries, the rate is still only 32%.

As medical authorities distribute booster doses and the omigran variant spreads around the world, the effects of slow vaccination deployment in less developed countries will become even more dangerous.

Infection - Reproduction - Reproduction

The epidemic killed millions before vaccines were developed

Image: Reproduction

5. We do not know how the Govit-19 epidemic will end

In many diseases, such as smallpox, the herd can achieve immunity to the population through mass vaccination – that is, the number of people infected with the virus is too high to spread.

For other diseases such as Capture, This is very difficult to achieve due to the constant mutations of the virus or the reduced immune system response over time.

In the case of Govit-19, the development of the infection shows that we are facing a second case. Many countries (including Brazil) are implementing vaccine booster programs because of the weakening of the immune system over time.

According to Shafeer A. Mati, a professor at the University of Whitwatersrand in South Africa, immunity lasts about six to nine months after being vaccinated against the virus or Govt-19.

While vaccines are effective in protecting against the more serious effects of Govt disease, even the best ones do not prevent people from transmitting the virus to others.

Says the Salvador Bureau of the FISABIO Research Institute in Valencia, Spain:

And Sars-CoV-2 are subject to rapid mutations that create new variants – some of which are more contagious and may be more resistant to the effects of vaccines.

Variations also show that we must “live” with the virus as it develops, constantly updating to modify vaccines. In this scenario, countries where the vaccine is more or less returning to normal life will realize that even if some people get sick, health systems will not be too burdensome.

Meanwhile, a small number of territories with low levels of covetousness, such as New Zealand and Hong Kong, face an embarrassment. Around the world, without any indication that the Govt has been eliminated, they must continue with strict isolation and travel restrictions or face the day of further easing of measures to allow Kovit inside.

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